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Banking and Financial Services

Businesses for holding, borrowing, or exchanging money

Banking and Financial Services

For many Americans, how banks and financial services work is a mystery. The U.S banking system covers a wide array of services and issues beyond depositing and withdrawing money. Loans, IRAs, investments, and credit management are some of the many aspects that U.S banks cover.

However, what specific services are offered depends on the type of bank. The following is a list of bank types. 

  • Commercial Banks
  • Retail Banks
  • Credit Unions
  • Savings and Loans
  • Savings Banks
  • Online Banks Mutual Banks
  • Central Banks

A single bank can offer multiple services in one. Though different in name, these bank types function in similar ways. The Central Bank or Federal Reserve is different from online and savings banks. They control, supervise, and fund the bank sector to ensure it’s running smoothly.

The Federal Reserve moves money in and out of the economy. They’re a symbol of economic health for America. The Reserve’s management of banking services affect voters’ quality of life, and daily costs. They perform open market transactions, manage market liquidity, and are the main force in fighting inflation.

Inflation is created by a number of social and economic pressures. Prices of goods and services rise based on issues of supply chains, and political pressures. The central bank combats this by adjusting interest rates on government bonds to cool the economy. In the battle of supply and demand, they try to adjust the demand so the supply can catch up.

Notable Laws

These issues take time to fix, but can be helped by governmental policies. In some instances, policies on raising wages can help lower inflation rates as the economy stabilizes. Policies on banking and financial services are rarely popular, and are passed slowly due to discussions in congress.

Here are some historic policies and acts that have impacted America’s economy over the years.

  • Federal Reserve Act of 1913: The creation of the central bank.
  • Glass-Steagall Act of 1933 & 1935: Creation of the FDIC and separation of investment banking from consumer banking. Ensures stability in the financial system for better consumer protection. Adjusted in 1999.
  • Financial Institutions Supervisory Act of 1966: Creation of regulations to prevent unsafe banking via federal bank oversight and cease and desist orders.
  • Financial Institutions Regulatory and Interest Rate Control Act of 1978: Established the Federal Financial Institutions Examination Council. Placed limits and mandatory reporting for insider bank transactions.
  • FIRREA 1989: Abolished dangerous loan industries to restore faith in loans and savings.
  • International Money Laundering Abatement and Financial Anti-Terrorism Act of 2001: Prevents outside institutions from moving funds inside the U.S banking system for illegal use. Created anti-money laundering programs within banking institutions.
  • Helping Families Save Their Homes Act of 2009: Helped families out of foreclosure through provisions and mortgage credit availability.

The American banking system is always adjusting based on the needs of the people. Recent moves include short-term financial relief through stimulus checks and tax credits during the 2020 Pandemic. They also helped defer rental costs to prevent major home loss during the pandemic.

Every action has a reaction, and some short-term fixes to economic issues can create long-term problems. Yet when things lean too far to one side, representatives work to help stabilize the economy.

Follow your favored candidates to see how they deal with economic struggles. See what they propose to help build faith in banks and put more money in the people’s hands.

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